1Q&A: Howard Berg, Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 6, 29 March 2005, Pages R189-R190, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.03.003.And yet he says, “Chemotaxis evolved so that cells can locate nutrients….” Who would have imagined, indeed. But then, when entering the high-performance world of microtechnology, imagination is what keeps the evolutionary story lubricated. Alcohol helps, too (see 08/12/2004 entry); some evolutionists seem to have converged on that form of chemotaxis after watching Unlocking the Mystery of Life. The modern era [of chemotaxis studies] began in the 1960s with Tetsuo Iino and Sho Asakura in Mishima and Nagoya, who began work on the structure of flagellar filaments (thought then to be primitive bending machines)…the flagellar motor has several pistons and a novel torque-speed relationship….We hope to understand how bacterial chemotaxis works, every nut and bolt. Who would have imagined: receptor complexes that count molecules and make temporal comparisons; activation of a diffusible signal that couples receptors to flagella; reversible rotary engines that drive propellers of variable pitch; force generators, rotors, drive shafts, bushings, and universal joints; a system with prodigious sensitivity, with amplification generated by receptor-receptor interactions? The biggest black box is the motor. We know a great deal about its electromotive and mechanical properties (torque, speed, changes in direction, and so forth) but we do not really know how it works. We need more structural information. This is hard, because essential components are membrane embedded. But even in an age of systems biology, one should not be embarrassed to focus on an isolated network controlling a particular molecular machine. (Emphasis added in all quotes.) (Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The bacterial flagellum, a virtual icon of the intelligent design movement, has been studied by many researchers, notably Howard Berg of Harvard, an expert on chemotaxis (the attraction of bacteria to chemical stimuli). Berg was interviewed in Current Biology1 and talked like a race car mechanic when discussing this molecular machine, though he is not involved in the ID movement and believes in evolution. Here are some excerpts:
10 March 2003South Africa’s bid to commercialise biotechnology is forging ahead with the setting up of three new regional innovation centres, the first of which was launched this month in Johannesburg.The Biotechnology Partnership for Africa’s Development (Biopad) was initiated earlier this year as a collective response, by a community of biotechnologists and other professionals, to the challenges posed by the varied needs of the region and the continent.According to the Biopad website, the aim of the initiative is to put South Africa among the world leaders in the application of biotechnology, in so doing “stimulating economic development, contributing to job creation, and building world-class skills and technology platforms to sustain and continue development”.Three regional Biopad biotechnology innovation centres are being set up under the auspices of the department of science and technology, in accordance with the department’s national biotechnology strategy.The department has allocated R400-million over the next three years towards the setting up of the three centres, in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal.The centres will serve as nuclei for the development of biotechnology platforms, from which a range of businesses offering new products and services can be developed. The centres will promote research and development, entrepreneurial services, technology, intellectual property management and business incubation.Each centre will focus on specific areas of biotechnology that fit with the country’s development imperatives, use local expertise and have commercial potential.The biotechnology innovation centre in Gauteng, which aims to become self-funding after three years, has been given R135-million by the department, and will focus on animal health on the one hand, and industrial, mining and environmental biotechnology, on the other.Both these focus areas are strategically important for South Africa and the region. Animal production comprises around 35% of total agricultural turnover in the country. Projects focusing on this area will include developing vaccines for tick-borne heartwater disease and bovine pneumonia, and combating psittacine beak and feather disease.According to a Business Day report, a further 25 projects are being funded by the Gauteng centre, including initiatives to “produce fine chemicals from aloes, identify microbial enzymes to help extract the flavour and medicinal compounds of Rooibos tea, and produce natural flavours and fragrances from micro-organisms”.The biotechnology innovation centre to be developed in KwaZulu-Natal will focus on human health, industrial bioprocessing and plant biotechnology, while the Western Cape centre will also focus on human health and industrial bioprocessing.Egoli BIO incubatorThe opening of the Gauteng Biopad centre was not the only boost biotechnology in the province has received this year. A separate initiative, the Egoli BIO life sciences incubator, was launched in February.Egoli BIO is a business incubator which aims to help grow small, medium and micro-sized biotechnology enterprises in the country. The company works closely with Biopad to nurture and prepare small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) for commercialisation.According to the website, Egoli BIO seeks to act as a “development conduit for the commercialisation of life sciences research, products, services and technology platforms” in South Africa.“It seeks to attract and nurture the highest quality tenants in this niche area, providing business infrastructure, strategic guidance, financial and legal advice, and to create an environment of learning and sharing in which information, experience and ideas are freely exchanged.”Egoli BIO is a joint initiative between the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the Innovation Hub – one of the project’s of the Gauteng government’s Blue IQ initiative – and AfricaBio, South Africa’s biotechnology industry association.Funding for Egoli BIO is being provided through Godisa, a joint initiative between the department of trade and industry, the department of arts, culture, science and technology, and the European Union.SouthAfrica.info reporter
What is also important to note is the measure of value added that takes place with every step of beneficiation, says Sawis. The South African wine industry’s annual contribution to the economy grew to R26.2-billion or 2.2% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008, a new study finds, confirming the substantial growth in the industry and its economic impact since 2003. Starting at farm level, the initial value of the raw material in terms of income created, amount to R3.4-billion and ultimately leads to a total GDP value of R21.7-billion, excluding tourism. The growth in value of domestic sales in nominal terms, over the period 2003-2008 amounted to 76%, while tax and excise amounted to R3.5-billion in 2008, growing by 71% since 2003. ‘Creator of economic growth’ SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material The total turnover of the wine alcohol industry in 2008 amounted to R19.2-billion. Of this amount, R6.3-billion was exported directly, while imports amounted to R237-million or about 2% of domestic sales. Compared with the 2003 study, it is evident that the wine industry as a whole did somewhat better over the 2003-2008 period. Total turnover grew by 79%. This growth can be attributed mainly to the excellent export performance – a close to doubling in current rand value terms since 2003. Primary agricultural output valued at R3.3-billion was beneficiated and added in value downstream to the value of R19.2-billion – about five times the initial value of the raw materials – while another R4.3-billion is generated indirectly through wine tourism. Of the over R26-billion contributed to the national economy, about R14.2-billion was generated in the Western Cape, with the industry supporting about 275 600 employment opportunities overall. Economic contribution, job creation According to a study conducted by Conningarth Economists for the South African Wine Industry Information and Systems (Sawis), when the previous study was done to measure the wine industry’s macro economic impact on the economy in 2003, the industry’s annual contribution was R22.5-billion. “However, with the industry now having become a true global player, future growth is largely dependent on a favourable exchange rate for exporters.” 16 February 2010 “Wine is firmly established as the leader in exports from the agricultural sector, and is second only to minerals and motor cars, with the growth in exports substantially contributing to the rise in the industry’s contribution to national GDP,” she said at the release of the study at the Groot Constantia Wine Estate earlier this month. According to Sawis chief executive Yvette van der Merwe, the study on the wine industry’s macro economic impact confirmed the industry’s growth trend. “This illustrates the exceptional ability of the industry as a creator of economic growth,” says Sawis. “The study once again confirms the industry’s importance to the Western Cape as a creator of employment opportunities on various levels – from vineyard workers to those involved in the tourist industry,” said Van der Merwe.
BJP Member of Parliament Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur, known for making controversial remarks, has kicked up another row by addressing Mahatma Gandhi as “son of the nation” instead of the “Father of the Nation”. Talking to reporters on the sidelines of a programme of Railways on Sunday, the Bhopal MP called Mahatma Gandhi rashtraputra (son of the nation) like many other icons of ancient and medieval India. The ruling Congress slammed Ms. Thakur for her remarks on Mahatma Gandhi.
Legendary Sri Lankan spinner Muttiah Muralitharan today made it clear he will continue to play cricket for another three years as he felt fit enough to feature in Indian Premier League and English county circuit.”I think my body is good enough to play cricket for another three years. I would like to play IPL and some county cricket in England. I have received some offers (from the counties) but can’t disclose them at this moment,” he said.Muralitharan was speaking at a felicitation function by his IPL team Chennai Super Super Kings here for taking 800 Test wickets.In a media interaction later, Muralitharan said that he had agreed to former Indian captain Anil Kumble’s offer to join him in starting an academy but refused to disclose the details of the venture.Asked whether he would play in next year’s World Cup in the sub continent, Muralitharan said, “It is still too early.I want to see how I play in the Champions League Twenty20 and then decide on the World Cup,” the 38-year-old Muralitharan said.Sanjay Manjrekar, who anchored the function, requested scribes before opening the floor for a question answer session not to pose questions on the match fixing allegations in Pakistan’s ongoing England tour.However, Muralitharan did answer a question on the issue, saying it is for the Pakistan Cricket Board and its English counterpart to deal with the situation and decide.”These are only allegations and I wouldn’t like to comment on these matters,” he said.advertisementMuralitharan said Harbhajan Singh has the best chance of reaching the 800 figure mark but he could not predict whether the Indian off-spinner would achieve the feat or not.”Harbhajan is only 29 and statistically it is possible for him to reach 800. But it is up to the bowler and I can’t predict anything. You should have the hunger to achieve anything,” he said.Manjrekar and former India captain S Venkataraghavan hosted a group discussion as part of the function.Tamil Nadu cricketers of Chennai Super Kings — Subramaniam Badrinath, Lakshmipathy Balaji, Ravichandran Ashwin, Anirudha Srikkanth and Shadab Jakati — and operations director V B Chandrasekar recalled their experiences with their famous colleague in IPL events.Venkatraghavan, part of the famous Indian spin quartet of yesteryears, showered praise on Muralitharan and discussed the finer points of spin bowling.Venkatraghavan presented Muralitharan a Super Kings team shirt with the number 800 printed on the back and Sri Lankan star immediately wore it on the stage.
Arsenal ‘Write in if you’ve got a problem’ – Arsenal’s fans deserve better from patronising Chips Keswick Chris Wheatley Arsenal Correspondent Last updated 2 years ago 16:21 10/27/17 FacebookTwitterRedditcopy Comments(1) Getty Images Arsenal Premier League Arsenal v Swansea City Swansea City Arsène Wenger Opinion The condescending nature in which Arsenal’s chairman addressed shareholders at Thursday’s AGM shows how out-of-touch the board is with fans “Thank you for your interest in our affairs” was the closing statement from ex-Arsenal chairman Peter Hill-Wood at the 2012 Annual General Meeting. The former Eton College pupil avoided a question on whether the Gunners would consider making changes to an ageing, all-male board. Fast forward five years and not much has changed in that regard.The same shareholder posed the same question to another old Etonian in Sir Chips Keswick during Thursday’s AGM and wasn’t even given the courtesy of a direct answer until heckles from the crowd saw the question asked again.“Will you look at the make-up of the board and stop saying ‘we’ll look at it’ every year?” asked a clearly frustrated shareholder. Arsenal’s bumbling chairman was at the centre of a PR disaster at Emirates Stadium as 240 shareholders and a large media presence witnessed 77-year-old Keswick evade tricky questions before ending the meeting with a reference to Stan Kroenke not speaking at the AGM and instead airing his views in the press. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Lyon treble & England heartbreak: The full story behind Lucy Bronze’s dramatic 2019 Liverpool v Man City is now the league’s biggest rivalry and the bitterness is growing Megan Rapinoe: Born & brilliant in the U.S.A. A Liverpool legend in the making: Behind Virgil van Dijk’s remarkable rise to world’s best player “Read the Daily Telegraph and you’ll find out [what Kroenke thinks],” remarked Keswick, as boos rang out across the floor.When Hill-Wood’s re-election as chairman was voted against by a large number of shareholders in 2012, he called them the “same lot”, referring to those who had also voted against the re-election of other directors.A similar sentiment was felt on Thursday just minutes after Arsene Wenger spoke about the values of Arsenal Football Club that he holds dear to his heart. Keswick made a mockery of Wenger’s words by telling shareholders (many of whom are life-long supporters) to “write in if you have a problem”.There is a long-standing problem on Arsenal’s ageing, all-white board that has been documented over the years. The traditionalist approach of having Old Etonians on the board may have been accepted 50 years ago but, in 2017, it is evident that new ideas, better public speakers and a figurehead who fans can relate to are all needed if the Gunners want to move to the next level.Chief executive Ivan Gazidis produced a speech which was broken up with a slick video about the positive initiatives Arsenal are involved in. It featured a graphic detailing £424m revenues while talking about new signings and holding on to Alexis Sanchez and Mesut Ozil, even though both will be out of contract at the end of the season.”The decisions [to keep] Alexis and Mesut Ozil are certainly not decisions that fit the narrative that we put money first. We have taken that approach to give the club the best possible chance to compete.”Furthermore, the north London giants are doing some magnificent work off the pitch – in terms of investment in youth, the community and coaching schemes – which certainly shouldn’t be overlooked.However, it was Wenger’s words which really rung true with those in the room. The sincere comments provided an inkling of the frustration that the Frenchman has felt at times, particularly over the past 18 months.“The only thing I can say is I dedicate 99 per cent of my lifetime to try to make you happy. Looking at what happened today, it’s not easy,” said Wenger.“I feel that a football club is about the past, the present, the future. On what we see now in the evolution of the game, football is ahead of society. Society always follows the way of the game. And what is for sure, in our game, the weight of the past, the weight of the future has been kicked out of the game.“The weight of the present has become heavier and the only one thing people want. The present. That means for me it is here and now. Win. It is acceptable but I always guided this club with one idea – a club is first about for me values that have been created by the past.”As the meeting came to a close, Wenger and Gazidis stayed to talk with waiting shareholders and supporters as Kroenke, Keswick and co all left the room. It seemed apt that the long-serving Frenchman was there to save face for a chairman so disconnected from the fanbase and an owner who didn’t say a word throughout the two hours.Change has been asked for by Arsenal supporters for a long time now but they appear even further from getting it with their American billionaire owner at the helm. Check out Goal’s Premier League 2019-20 fantasy football podcast for game tips, debate and rivalries.
Tesla exits US probe of fatal ‘Autopilot’ crash A key Tesla executive who heads the automaker’s Autopilot project is leaving amid a probe into a fatal accident involving a car using the semi-autonomous driving technology The head of Tesla’s Autopilot project is leaving the carmarker, amid a US government probe into a fatal accident involving a vehicle using the semi-autonomous driving system. © 2018 AFP The executive, Jim Keller, is moving to chipmaking giant Intel, both companies said Thursday.Keller’s departure adds to the challenges of the electric car giant’s effort to craft self-driving technology.Keller’s last day at Tesla was Wednesday, and he was the third Autopilot project head to leave in about two years. He oversaw low-voltage hardware, autopilot software, and “infotainment,” according to Tesla.”We appreciate his contributions to Tesla and wish him the best,” the auto firm said in a statement.Pete Bannon, whose background includes working on Apple computer chips, was named the new head of Autopilot hardware. Responsibility for Autopilot software was given to Tesla director of artificial intelligence Andrej Karpathy “Tesla is deeply committed to developing the most advanced silicon in the world and we plan to dramatically increase our investment in that area while building on the world-class leadership team we have in place,” the company said.Keller next week will start his job as an Intel senior vice president leading silicon engineering, according to the chip maker.The move comes with US safety investigators probing a March 23 accident in which a Tesla Model X operating on Autopilot collided with a highway barrier near the town of Mountain View in California, catching fire before it was struck by two other cars.The driver, identified as a 38-year-old man, Wei Huang, later died in hospital.Tesla said this month it “withdrew” from a party agreement governing a National Transportation Safety Board probe.But the NTSB announced the “removal of Tesla,” after the company disclosed information the agency said could taint the public understanding of what happened, in violation of the agreement. Citation: Head of Tesla Autopilot project leaves for Intel (2018, April 26) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-tesla-autopilot-intel.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.