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Math on climate change was wrong

first_imgCategories: Letters to the Editor, OpinionRegarding R. Anderson’s Feb. 18 letter on climate change: His math says 2017’s undisputed 2ppm CO2 increase converts to 400 gigatons (Gt) of human CO2 emissions. He claims that humans emit closer to 8 gigatons, nowhere near 400, proving his argument against anthropogenic climate change. But as our sixth-grade math teachers told us, show your work.Mr. Anderson didn’t. University of Washington professor L. Jaegle does the math in his ATM S 211 class, available online. Given a weight of 44 for CO2 and an “80 percent N2-28 / 20 percent O2-32” atmosphere weighing five million gigatons, here we go: (2/1,000,000) x (44/(0.8×28+0.2×32)) x 5,000,000 = 15.3 Gt CO2. A two ppm CO2 rise is equivalent to 15.3 Gt, not 400 Gt, as claimed by Mr. Anderson.What of his claim that National Geographic accounts for just eight gigatons per year of CO2 fossil fuel emissions in 2007? He didn’t read the y-axis label on the magazine’s chart, which is for Carbon-12, not CO2-44, as he claimed. Eight Gt/yr of C-12 in the chart converts to 8 x (44/12) = 29.3 Gt/yr of CO2 in 2007.And sadly, we humans in 2017 emitted 36 gigatons of CO2, an astounding increase of 23 percent since 2007. (Search “global greenhouse gas emissions EPA”).What does the correct math tell us? Last year, atmospheric CO2 increased by 15.3 gigatons, and humans emitted more than twice that – 36 gigatons. Mr. Anderson’s numbers are wrong, and wrong math/science is a big problem nowadays.Rather than throwing in the towel and adding stilts to our foundations, as Mr. Anderson suggests, let’s reduce, reuse, recycle — and show our math.Guy SpiersNiskayunaMore from The Daily Gazette:Niskayuna girls’ cross country wins over BethlehemEDITORIAL: Find a way to get family members into nursing homesFoss: Should main downtown branch of the Schenectady County Public Library reopen?EDITORIAL: Urgent: Today is the last day to complete the censusEDITORIAL: Beware of voter intimidationlast_img read more

Maidenhead offices: Maidenhead held high

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J. Michael Kelly Repeats As Indiana Governor’s Cup Champion

first_imgJ. Michael Kelly in the Graham Trucking won the Indiana Governor’s Cup H1 Unlimited Hydroplane race Sunday, pulling away from second-place finisher Jimmy Shane in the Oberto on the first lap of the winner take all championship. Kelly averaged 141.818 to take the title and ran a 144.701 on the first lap to secure the position. The win was the second consecutive Governor’s Cup title for Kelly.“We were lucky just to make the final heat,” said Kelly, who won his sixth overall race on the national circuit. “We broke the front canard of the boat in the final preliminary heat and the team worked hard to get it back together.“I don’t know how they did it, but it held together, and we were able to get the win.”Kelly broke the canard in the second preliminary heat exiting turn one of the second lap in heat 2B. The broken canard allowed Jimmy Shane in the Oberto to catch the Graham Trucking boat in that heat, but in the championship final, Kelly grabbed the lead from lane one after a perfect start and led from wire to wire.Shane took second in the final while Jesse Robertson in Graham Trucking II placed third. Tom Thompson in the Peters & May hydro did not start. Thompson’s boat was damaged prior to the start after hitting a piece of floating wood.It was a wild weekend for the unlimited hydroplane teams and the drivers. Of the 11 boats that made the trip to Madison, only five boats raced due to the debris ridden Ohio River. The change also required a change in the racing format. A two-boat, three lap shootout for all four preliminary heats led to the championship winner-take-all final.“We have been discussing for many years a way to race on smaller bodies of water,” said Steve David, H1 Unlimited Chairman. “With the amount of debris in the water, this gave us an opportunity to test the three lap shootout format.“This format will open up other possibilities for new race sites on the H1 circuit.”In the final heat, the boats also drew for starting positions instead of the pre-starting gun battle for lane positions. Kelly had lane one while Shane had lane two.“The lane position draw helped me quite a bit, having the inside on lane one on the Oberto is always important but it also tough,” said Kelly. “I knew I had to hold that lane and get through the rollers in turn one if I even had a chance to win. I knew if I did that I could take control of the race.”And that he did.INDIANA GOVERNOR’S CUP FINAL STANDINGS1st – Graham Trucking, J Michael Kelly, 141.8182nd –Oberto, Jimmy Shane, 139.7243rd – Graham Trucking, Jessie Robertson, 125.317DNS – Peters and May, Tom ThompsonDNS – Miss Dujulio, Patrick SankuerFastest Lap – J Michael Kelly, Lap 1, Final heat, 144.701mphCourtesy of Bruce Madej.last_img read more